Innovation and
Education

ISSN(Online) 2524-8502

Code of Research Publication Ethics

Home Policy Code of Research Publication Ethics

Publication Ethics and Misconduct

Duty of Care: Provide safeguards against potential risks and dangers of participants in research; Observe legal and ethical obligations of care for human and animal subjects or human organs or tissue, or for the protection of the environment; Show due respect in the representation of human remains and sacred sites.

  • Breaches of duty of care include but not limited to the following: breaches of confidentiality without prior consent; failure to disclose and to obtain consent to exposure to risks and dangers of participants in research

Conflicts of Interest: Authors, editors, and reviewers have an ethical obligation to disclose conflicts of interest (COI). COI typically originates from incompatibility between parties when one or more parties stands to benefit materially or reputationally from such incompatibility.

Discriminatory Research Practices and Language: Differential treatment of and conduct toward an individual or group of people based on their race, color, national origin, religion, gender, age, marital and parental status, disability, sexual orientation, or genetic information.

Fabrication: Manufacture of information intended to deceptively promote or diminish or otherwise mislead.

Falsification: Alteration of information intended to deceptively promote or diminish or otherwise mislead.

Ideological or Political Bias: Explicit or implicit sympathy or antipathy toward another school of thought or propensity or differential treatment of another school of thought or propensity that results in the objective standards of intellectual rigor being discarded in favor of a personal and tendentious assessment of merit.

Failure to Acknowledge Sources: All forms of plagiarism (see below). Intentionally or unintentionally omitting to cite irreproducible sources.

Failure to Meet Legal and Professional Obligations: Failure to adhere to the standards and limitations imposed by relevant professional bodies and research funders.

Plagiarism: Appropriation of another person’s words, ideas, methods, results, or artwork as one’s own without appropriate citation.

  • Self-plagiarism: Repurposing of one’s own work without appropriate citation.
  • Translation plagiarism: Repurposing of work written in a foreign language without appropriate citation.

Segmented Publication: Also known as “salami publication”, the practice of dividing the data from one research project, characterized by similarity in hypotheses, methodologies, and conclusions, as a strategy to inflate the number of one’s publications.

Undisclosed Errors in Published Work: Failure to report errors discovered after publication to the publisher and/or editor. It will likely be necessary to issue an erratum or corrigendum, according to the nature of the case.

Undisclosed Misconduct and/or Ethical Violations in Published Work: Failure to report instances of research misconduct and/or publication ethics violations discovered after publication to the publisher and/or editor. It will likely be necessary to issue a retraction.

Misrepresentation of Authorship: Exaggerating or understating/omitting contribution by one or more parties to a publication. Examples include the following:

  • Ghostwriting: One’s contribution to a publication is intentionally concealed.
  • Marketplace authorship: Buying or selling authorship of academic manuscripts.
  • Honorary authorship: Authorship given to an individual out of respect or gratitude.
  • Gift authorship: Authorship given to an individual without substantial contributions to the publication with the understanding, explicit or implicit, that the other party will do the same at some point.
  • Guest authorship: Inclusion of senior or high-profile authors to improve chances of publication.

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November, 2021

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ISSN(Online) 2524-8502