Abstract : Due to an unclear definition and a lack of strict quantitative studies, impact of academic inbreeding on research outputs is still controversial. In this paper, the single teacher academic inbreeding index (STAII) was defined to measure the degree of inbreeding by simultaneously considering the educational background and mobility of a teacher. A quantitative study using STAII was carried out to reveal the impact of academic inbreeding on research outputs for 1,715 faculty members from 50 universities or departments of humanities ranked in the top three higher education tiers in China over the last 5 years. Regression analysis indicated positive contributions of academic inbreeding to research outputs with some detailed insights. The STAII was demonstrated to be a reasonable, straightforward and flexible index to quantify academic inbreeding, which would be useful to evaluate and compare academic inbreeding and to provide a reference for talent management in research institutions.
Abstract : Based on the views from HEIs administrators, teachers, and students about online learning during the pandemic in Sri Lanka, this study examines the existing gaps in HEIs that might hinder the inclusivity and quality of online learning, and the role of HEIs to drive and support online learning. This study adopts the institutional framework for online and blended learning by Lim et al. (2019) to analyse the enabling factors and challenges faced by HEIs in Sri Lanka to drive and support inclusive and quality online learning, and suggests how their capacity could be built to engage all students in quality online learning. The study highlights that most HEIs in Sri Lanka are in the initial stages towards inclusive and quality online learning. The HEIs in Sri Lanka need to pay more attention to formulating online learning-related policies at the university level, investing in infrastructure and hardware to enhance the access to quality online teaching and learning, sustaining partnerships to support the quality enhancement of online teaching and learning, offering pedagogically-oriented professional development opportunities for teachers, and providing student learning support. Besides these dimensions, two other dimensions, namely curriculum development and reforms and research and evaluation of online learning, have to be taken into consideration. The study suggests a more systematic and holistic approach would be crucial to guide HEIs as they strive toward inclusive and quality online learning in the medium and long run.
Abstract : Our career-forward approach to general chemistry laboratory for engineers involves the use of design challenges (DCs), an innovation that employs authentic professional context and practice to transform traditional tasks into developmentally appropriate career experiences. These challenges are scaled-down engineering problems related to the US National Academy of Engineering’s Grand Challenges that engage students in collaborative problem solving via the modeling process. With task features aligned with professional engineering practice, DCs are hypothesized to support student motivation for the task as well as for the profession. As an evaluation of our curriculum design process, we use expectancy–value theory to test our hypotheses by investigating the association between students’ task value beliefs and self-confidence with their user experience, gender and URM status. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, the results reveal that students find value in completing a DC (F(5,2430) = 534.96, p
Abstract : Technical training in the fields of data science and artificial intelligence has recently become a highly desirable skill for industry positions as well as a focus of STEM education programs in higher education. However, most of the educational training and courses in data science and artificial intelligence are abstract and highly technical which is not appropriate for all audiences. In this paper, we propose a sequential art approach that uses visual storytelling with integrated coding learning experiences to teach data science concepts. A scoping literature review was conducted to answer the following question: does sufficient evidence exist in the literature to support a sequential art approach to data science and A.I. education? The learning science, sequential art, and dual coding literature bases were then interrogated to answer that question. With knowledge gained from this review, an initial DataStory™ prototype was constructed, using a technical platform capable of delivering an engaging and interactive sequential art learning experience. And finally, findings from a focus group study using the DataStory™ prototype are discussed in which participant feedback to this new learning experience is reported.
Abstract : Western culture discourages discussion of death and dying, especially with healthy emerging adults. Yet, research shows that engaging this population in conversations about death and dying is empowering and important for young people’s decision-making around and understanding of the end of life. We show that students are indeed ill-informed on such issues but that they desire to learn more. We describe and assess a pilot undergraduate course in palliative care addressing this need, and we demonstrate its success in engaging and educating students using pedagogical approaches built to develop a social and intellectual community of trust.
Abstract : Pinterest, a popular social networking site, is used as a resource by educators across all grade levels. We take the perspective that Pinterest acts as a professional learning network (PLN) and interrogate the ways that teachers share resources within online/offline PLNs. Eighty-eight teachers responded to a survey that asked about their social media use as well as their sharing of Pinterest resources with their professional colleagues. Building from the media use typology, we developed the Peer-to-Peer Pinterest Sharing Typology to describe types of sharing, finding that most respondents indicated that they did not share resources, others shared if forced to, and some shared as a way to enhance collegial collaboration. This research expands limited empirical work on both Pinterest as a PLN and on how learning and resources from online PLNs cross into school-based ones. This work will be of interest to those who seek to understand how social media sites play a role in teacher professional learning.
Abstract : The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education has been widely advocated as much needed 21st-century skills by governments and policymakers. Nevertheless, several challenges in integrating ICT into the curriculum have been reported in previous research, especially in studies on Sub-Saharan African countries. Focusing on the case of Kenyan public primary schools, this study investigated the availability of ICT facilities; teacher capacity to integrate technology into their lessons; and teacher perceptions towards technology in schools. In particular, the study is premised on the constructivist learning theory and the Technology Acceptance Model. A total of 351 teachers completed an online questionnaire. Teachers perceived that ICT facilities were inadequate in schools, which presented a challenge in the integration of technology during the implementation of the new curriculum. Most of the teachers answered that they received only basic computer literacy training. Although teachers perceived the use of computers as necessary, they faced difficulties integrating technology in their lessons. The effect of age and gender on teacher capacity was also investigated in inferential statistics, specifically with Welch tests and Games-Howell post hoc comparisons. Teachers in their 40s had a higher perception of usefulness than teachers in the 30s. Implications of the study are discussed as well as future research topics.
Abstract : There is a growing need to address today’s “wicked problems” seen in issues such as social justice, global climate crisis and endemic health concerns. Wicked problems are those for which there is no single, clear or optimal solution and thus are amenable to transdisciplinary solutions. Working in a transdisciplinary paradigm is thus seen as an increasingly necessary learned skill, and yet there is a dearth of knowledge on how curriculum centred around transdisciplinarity is perceived by those impacted by such curricula. This study examines the attitudes and responses of Aging Gracefully across Environments using Technology to Support Wellness, Engagement and Long Life NCE Inc.’s (AGE-WELL) stakeholders to the concept and role of transdisciplinarity in a training program intended to equip trainees and research staff from a variety of fields to address the “wicked problem” of aging well in Canada. We conducted 15 in-depth interviews with current AGE-WELL members, trainees as well as researchers and mentors, on the subject of designing the best possible training program. Our data illustrate the complexity of curriculum design and implementation to train for transdisciplinarity. We consider ways in which a shift in culture or ethos in academia may be required to pursue a thoroughly transdisciplinary approach to problem-solving. Short of instituting such a radical culture change as transdisciplinarity, however, strategic and conscientious efforts to integrate multiple and diverse perspectives, to attend carefully to communication and to foreground relationship building may well achieve some of the same goals.
Abstract : Despite earning half of all science and engineering undergraduate degrees between 2007 and 2016 in the USA, women were awarded only 39% of earth science degrees in the same time period. In order to better understand why women are both choosing and staying in geology programs, we conducted a multi-case study of nine current female undergraduate geology majors at a large public university in the USA within a department that is at gender parity among its undergraduate majors. The main data source was audio-recorded critical incident interviews of each participant. Data from the interviews were analyzed through an iterative coding process using codes adapted from previous studies that focused on factors both internal and external to the department. The students said that personal interests, influence by others outside of the department, and introductory classes attracted them to the geology program, but once declared, departmental factors such as relationship with faculty caused them to stay. We also found an emphasis on female role models, especially those teaching introductory courses. We believe this study offers important insights into the ways in which factors leading to recruitment and retention play out in the lived experiences of female geology majors.
Abstract : Postdoctoral fellowships are costly: institutions incur substantial monetary costs, and fellows suffer the opportunity cost of delaying entry into their professional careers. Nevertheless, fellowship training is a beneficial academic investment; the right resources can attract high-quality candidates and maximize return on investment for all parties. This study examined the availability and perceived utility of training resources in a national, multisite interprofessional health services research fellowship program and examined differences in resource perception between alumni and directors as well as M.D. and Ph.D. alumni. One-hundred thirty-one alumni and 15 directors from a multisite interprofessional postdoctoral fellowship completed surveys regarding fellowship resources. Results from the fellowship sample as a whole revealed that mentoring and seminars were the most commonly available resources in fellowships and alumni from the same site often disagreed about resource availability. When we compared alumni and directors’ responses from the same site, we found they often disagreed about resource availability, with directors often being more likely to respond that the resource is available than the alumni. Finally, M.D. alumni reported availability of more resources and found resources to be more useful overall than Ph.D. alumni. Mentoring and seminars are important and commonly provided resources for trainees in fellowship programs; however, M.D.s and Ph.D.s vary in perceived usefulness of other resources, suggesting that one resource does not fit all. Given the gap, postdoctoral fellows may benefit from direct communication of available resources. Moreover, as Ph.D. fellows reported less resource availability and usefulness, attention should be given to meeting their unmet needs. Taken together, this will optimize their fellowship experience, thus better preparing them for their career and, ultimately, their impact on health care.
Kent J. Crippen,Lorelie Imperial,Corey Payne,Charlotte A. Bolch,Maria Korolev,Chang-Yu Wu,Philip Brucat
Daniel Maxwell,Sarah Meyer,Charlotte Bolch
Daniel Maxwell,Sarah Meyer,Charlotte Bolch
Lisa Lundgren,Rachelle Curcio,Stephanie E. Schroeder
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